100 Linux Best Practices by ProDevOpsGuy Tech ๐Ÿš€

100 Linux Best Practices by ProDevOpsGuy Tech ๐Ÿš€

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12 min read

Table of contents

1. Keep System Updated ๐Ÿ› ๏ธ

Regularly update your system to ensure you have the latest security patches and software versions.

sudo apt update && sudo apt upgrade

2. Use Package Managers Efficiently ๐Ÿ“ฆ

Use apt, yum, dnf, pacman, or other package managers to install, update, and remove software.

sudo apt install package_name

3. Manage Services with Systemd โš™๏ธ

Control services using systemd to start, stop, and manage services.

sudo systemctl start service_name
sudo systemctl enable service_name
sudo systemctl status service_name

4. User and Group Management ๐Ÿ‘ฅ

Add, modify, and delete users and groups to manage permissions and access control.

sudo adduser username
sudo usermod -aG groupname username
sudo deluser username

5. File Permissions and Ownership ๐Ÿ”’

Use chmod, chown, and chgrp to set appropriate file permissions and ownership.

sudo chown user:group filename
sudo chmod 755 filename

6. Use SSH for Remote Management ๐ŸŒ

Securely manage servers and remote systems using SSH.

ssh user@remote_host

7. Set Up SSH Key-Based Authentication ๐Ÿ”‘

Enhance security by using SSH keys instead of passwords.

ssh-keygen
ssh-copy-id user@remote_host

8. Monitor System Performance ๐Ÿ“Š

Use top, htop, and glances to monitor system performance and resource usage.

top

9. Automate Tasks with Cron Jobs ๐Ÿ•’

Schedule and automate recurring tasks using cron.

crontab -e
# Add a job, e.g., to run a script every day at midnight
0 0 * * * /path/to/script.sh

10. Use Aliases for Efficiency โšก

Create aliases to simplify and speed up command execution.

alias ll='ls -la'

11. Backup and Restore Data ๐Ÿ’พ

Regularly backup important data using tools like rsync or tar.

rsync -avh /source/directory /backup/directory

12. Use Scripting to Automate Tasks ๐Ÿ“

Write Bash scripts to automate repetitive tasks and processes.

#!/bin/bash
echo "Hello, World!"

13. Understand and Utilize Redirection โžก๏ธ

Use >, >>, 2>, and | to redirect output and errors.

ls > output.txt
ls >> output.txt
ls 2> error.txt
ls | grep pattern

14. Use Text Processing Tools ๐Ÿ› ๏ธ

Utilize grep, awk, sed, and cut for text processing and manipulation.

grep "search_term" file.txt
awk '{print $1}' file.txt
sed 's/old/new/g' file.txt
cut -d',' -f1 file.txt

15. Manage Disk Usage ๐Ÿ’ฟ

Use df, du, and ncdu to monitor and manage disk space.

df -h
du -sh /directory
ncdu

16. Secure Your System with Firewalls ๐Ÿ”ฅ

Use ufw, iptables, or firewalld to configure firewalls.

sudo ufw allow 22
sudo ufw enable

17. Use Version Control ๐Ÿ—ƒ๏ธ

Manage code and configurations using Git.

git init
git add .
git commit -m "Initial commit"

18. Use Environment Variables ๐Ÿ“‹

Set and use environment variables for configuration and scripts.

export VAR_NAME=value
echo $VAR_NAME

19. Secure Sensitive Information ๐Ÿ”

Store sensitive information in environment variables or use secret management tools.

export DB_PASSWORD='securepassword'

20. Set Up a Firewall ๐Ÿšง

Configure a firewall to protect your system from unauthorized access.

sudo ufw enable
sudo ufw allow ssh

21. Install Software from Source ๐Ÿ“œ

Compile and install software from source when necessary.

./configure
make
sudo make install

22. Create and Manage Virtual Environments ๐Ÿ› ๏ธ

Use tools like virtualenv for Python projects to manage dependencies.

virtualenv venv
source venv/bin/activate

23. Use Containers for Isolation ๐Ÿณ

Utilize Docker or Podman for containerizing applications.

docker run -it ubuntu

24. Monitor Logs ๐Ÿ“–

Use journalctl and log files in /var/log to troubleshoot issues.

journalctl -xe
tail -f /var/log/syslog

25. Set Up Network Configurations ๐ŸŒ

Configure network interfaces and settings using ip, ifconfig, and nmcli.

ip addr show
sudo ifconfig eth0 up

26. Optimize System Performance ๐Ÿš€

Use sysctl to configure kernel parameters for better performance.

sudo sysctl -w net.ipv4.ip_forward=1

27. Use Disk Partitioning Tools ๐Ÿ—‚๏ธ

Manage disk partitions with fdisk, parted, and lsblk.

sudo fdisk /dev/sda
sudo parted /dev/sda
lsblk

28. Implement RAID for Redundancy ๐Ÿ”„

Set up RAID using mdadm for data redundancy and performance.

sudo mdadm --create --verbose /dev/md0 --level=1 --raid-devices=2 /dev/sd[ab]

29. Encrypt Sensitive Data ๐Ÿ”

Use tools like gpg and openssl to encrypt data.

gpg -c file.txt
openssl enc -aes-256-cbc -salt -in file.txt -out file.enc

30. Configure System Backups ๐Ÿ’พ

Schedule regular backups using tools like rsnapshot or duplicity.

rsnapshot configtest
rsnapshot hourly

31. Use Process Management Tools ๐Ÿ”ง

Manage running processes with ps, kill, pkill, and nice.

ps aux
kill -9 PID
pkill process_name
nice -n 10 command

32. Set Up Swap Space ๐Ÿ’พ

Configure swap space to improve system stability.

sudo fallocate -l 4G /swapfile
sudo chmod 600 /swapfile
sudo mkswap /swapfile
sudo swapon /swapfile

33. Implement Security Best Practices ๐Ÿ›ก๏ธ

Follow security guidelines and practices to harden your system.

sudo ufw enable
sudo fail2ban-client status

34. Use Monitoring and Alerting Tools ๐Ÿšจ

Implement tools like Nagios, Zabbix, or Prometheus for monitoring.

sudo apt install nagios

35. Set Up and Manage Databases ๐Ÿ—„๏ธ

Install, configure, and manage databases like MySQL, PostgreSQL, or MongoDB.

sudo systemctl start mysql
sudo -u postgres psql

36. Optimize Network Performance ๐Ÿ“ก

Use tools like iperf and netstat to optimize network performance.

iperf -s
netstat -tuln

37. Use Virtualization Tools ๐Ÿ–ฅ๏ธ

Utilize KVM, VirtualBox, or VMware for virtualization.

sudo apt install qemu-kvm libvirt-bin
sudo virt-manager

38. Manage Configuration Files ๐Ÿ“‚

Use version control for configuration files to keep track of changes.

git init
git add /etc/config_file
git commit -m "Initial config file"

39. Use Network File Systems ๐ŸŒ

Set up and use NFS, SMB, or CIFS for network file sharing.

sudo apt install nfs-kernel-server
sudo exportfs -a

40. Implement Logging and Auditing ๐Ÿ“

Use auditd and logging tools to track system activity.

sudo apt install auditd
sudo auditctl -e 1

41. Use Screen and Tmux for Terminal Management ๐Ÿ“บ

Manage multiple terminal sessions using screen or tmux.

screen
tmux

42. Optimize Boot Time โฑ๏ธ

Reduce boot time by disabling unnecessary services.

sudo systemctl disable service_name

43. Use Disk Quotas ๐Ÿ“‰

Implement disk quotas to limit user disk usage.

sudo apt install quota
sudo edquota username

44. Set Up DNS ๐ŸŒ

Configure DNS settings using bind or other DNS servers.

sudo apt install bind9
sudo systemctl start bind9

45. Use Tools for Disk Recovery ๐Ÿ› ๏ธ

Utilize fsck and testdisk for disk recovery and repair.

sudo fsck /

dev/sda1
sudo testdisk

46. Implement High Availability ๐Ÿ”„

Set up high availability with tools like keepalived or HAProxy.

sudo apt install keepalived
sudo systemctl start keepalived

47. Use Load Balancing โš–๏ธ

Distribute load using tools like Nginx, HAProxy, or LoadBalancer.

sudo apt install nginx
sudo systemctl start nginx

48. Use Caching Mechanisms ๐Ÿ—„๏ธ

Improve performance with caching tools like Memcached or Redis.

sudo apt install redis-server
sudo systemctl start redis

49. Use Ansible for Configuration Management ๐Ÿ”„

Automate configuration management using Ansible.

ansible-playbook -i inventory playbook.yml

50. Implement Continuous Integration/Deployment ๐Ÿ”„

Use CI/CD tools like Jenkins, GitLab CI, or Travis CI.

sudo apt install jenkins
sudo systemctl start jenkins

51. Understand and Use SELinux ๐Ÿ”’

  • Enhance security using SELinux policies and tools.

  • Commands:

      sudo setenforce 1
      sudo getenforce
    

52. Use AppArmor for Security ๐Ÿ›ก๏ธ

  • Implement security profiles using AppArmor.

  • Commands:

      sudo apt install apparmor
      sudo aa-status
    

53. Set Up and Use LDAP ๐Ÿ‘ฅ

  • Configure LDAP for centralized authentication.

  • Commands:

      sudo apt install slapd
      sudo dpkg-reconfigure slapd
    

54. Use Nginx or Apache for Web Serving ๐ŸŒ

  • Set up web servers using Nginx or Apache.

  • Commands:

      sudo apt install nginx
      sudo systemctl start nginx
    

55. Use Fail2Ban to Protect Against Brute Force Attacks ๐Ÿšซ

  • Install and configure Fail2Ban to protect your system.

  • Commands:

      sudo apt install fail2ban
      sudo systemctl start fail2ban
    

56. Use Snort for Intrusion Detection ๐Ÿ•ต๏ธ

  • Set up Snort for network intrusion detection.

  • Commands:

      sudo apt install snort
      sudo systemctl start snort
    

57. Use ClamAV for Antivirus Protection ๐Ÿฆ 

  • Install and use ClamAV for virus scanning.

  • Commands:

      sudo apt install clamav
      sudo clamscan -r /
    

58. Set Up a Mail Server ๐Ÿ“ง

  • Configure a mail server using Postfix, Sendmail, or Exim.

  • Commands:

      sudo apt install postfix
      sudo systemctl start postfix
    

59. Use Rsync for Efficient File Transfers ๐Ÿ“‚

  • Synchronize files and directories efficiently using Rsync.

  • Command:

      rsync -avh source/ destination/
    

60. Configure and Use Proxy Servers ๐ŸŒ

  • Set up and manage proxy servers using Squid or HAProxy.

  • Commands:

      sudo apt install squid
      sudo systemctl start squid
    

61. Implement Two-Factor Authentication ๐Ÿ”

  • Enhance security with two-factor authentication.

  • Commands:

      sudo apt install libpam-google-authenticator
      google-authenticator
    

62. Use Tools for Packet Analysis ๐Ÿ”

  • Analyze network packets using tools like Wireshark or tcpdump.

  • Commands:

      sudo apt install wireshark
      sudo tcpdump -i eth0
    

63. Set Up and Use VPNs ๐Ÿ›ก๏ธ

  • Configure VPNs using OpenVPN or WireGuard.

  • Commands:

      sudo apt install openvpn
      sudo systemctl start openvpn
    

64. Use Configuration Management Tools โš™๏ธ

  • Use tools like Puppet, Chef, or Salt for configuration management.

  • Commands:

      sudo apt install puppet
      sudo systemctl start puppet
    

65. Use Load Testing Tools ๐Ÿ“Š

  • Test and optimize system performance with tools like ab or JMeter.

  • Command:

      ab -n 100 -c 10 http://example.com/
    

66. Set Up DNS Caching ๐Ÿ—‚๏ธ

  • Configure DNS caching with tools like dnsmasq.

  • Commands:

      sudo apt install dnsmasq
      sudo systemctl start dnsmasq
    

67. Use Centralized Logging ๐Ÿ“œ

  • Implement centralized logging using tools like Logstash or Fluentd.

  • Commands:

      sudo apt install logstash
      sudo systemctl start logstash
    

68. Implement Security Audits ๐Ÿ›ก๏ธ

  • Regularly perform security audits using tools like Lynis.

  • Commands:

      sudo apt install lynis
      sudo lynis audit system
    

69. Use Certificate Management Tools ๐Ÿ”‘

  • Manage SSL/TLS certificates using tools like certbot.

  • Commands:

      sudo apt install certbot
      sudo certbot --nginx
    

70. Set Up Remote Desktop Access ๐Ÿ–ฅ๏ธ

  • Configure remote desktop access using xrdp or VNC.

  • Commands:

      sudo apt install xrdp
      sudo systemctl start xrdp
    

71. Use Docker for Containerization ๐Ÿณ

  • Simplify application deployment and management using Docker.

  • Commands:

      sudo apt install docker.io
      sudo systemctl start docker
    

72. Implement File Integrity Monitoring ๐Ÿ“Š

  • Use tools like AIDE or Tripwire for file integrity monitoring.

  • Commands:

      sudo apt install aide
      sudo aideinit
    

73. Use GPG for Secure Communication ๐Ÿ”

  • Encrypt and sign communications using GPG.

  • Commands:

      gpg --gen-key
      gpg --encrypt --recipient user@example.com file.txt
    

74. Set Up and Manage Caches ๐Ÿ—„๏ธ

  • Use caching mechanisms like Varnish to improve performance.

  • Commands:

      sudo apt install varnish
      sudo systemctl start varnish
    

75. Use Python Virtual Environments ๐Ÿ

  • Isolate Python environments using virtualenv or venv.

  • Commands:

      python3 -m venv myenv
      source myenv/bin/activate
    

76. Implement Data Encryption ๐Ÿ”

  • Use LUKS or other encryption tools to secure data.

  • Commands:

      sudo cryptsetup luksFormat /dev/sda1
      sudo cryptsetup open /dev/sda1 encrypted
    

77. Use Load Balancing Techniques โš–๏ธ

  • Distribute load using Nginx or HAProxy.

  • Commands:

      sudo apt install haproxy
      sudo systemctl start haproxy
    

78. Implement High Availability Clustering ๐ŸŒ

  • Use tools like Pacemaker for high availability clustering.

  • Commands:

      sudo apt install pacemaker
      sudo systemctl start pacemaker
    

79. Use Terraform for Infrastructure as Code โ›๏ธ

  • Manage infrastructure using Terraform.

  • Commands:

      terraform init
      terraform apply
    

80. Implement Continuous Monitoring ๐Ÿ“ˆ

  • Use tools like Zabbix or Prometheus for continuous monitoring.

  • Commands:

      sudo apt install zabbix-server-mysql
      sudo systemctl start zabbix-server
    

81. Configure Multi-Factor Authentication ๐Ÿ”’

  • Set up multi-factor authentication for enhanced security.

  • Commands:

      sudo apt install google-authenticator
      google-authenticator
    

82. Use Kubernetes for Orchestration ๐Ÿ“ฆ

  • Manage containerized applications with Kubernetes.

  • Commands:

      sudo apt install kubectl
      kubectl cluster-info
    

83. Set Up Logging with ELK Stack ๐Ÿ“

  • Use Elasticsearch, Logstash, and Kibana for centralized logging.

  • Commands:

      sudo apt install elasticsearch logstash kibana
      sudo systemctl start elasticsearch logstash kibana
    

84. Use Let's Encrypt for SSL Certificates ๐Ÿ”‘

  • Obtain free SSL certificates using Let's Encrypt.

  • Commands:

      sudo apt install certbot
      sudo certbot --nginx
    

85. Implement Rate Limiting ๐Ÿšฆ

  • Protect against abuse by implementing rate limiting.

  • Commands:

      sudo apt install nginx
      sudo vim /etc/nginx/nginx.conf
    

86. Optimize Database Performance ๐Ÿš€

  • Tune database settings for optimal performance.

  • Command:

      sudo vim /etc/mysql/my.cnf
    

87. Use Network Monitoring Tools ๐Ÿ“ก

  • Monitor network traffic using tools like iftop or nload.

  • Commands:

      sudo apt install iftop
      sudo iftop
    

88. Implement Disk Encryption ๐Ÿ”’

  • Encrypt disks using tools like LUKS for added security.

  • Commands:

      sudo cryptsetup luksFormat /dev/sda1
      sudo cryptsetup open /dev/sda1 encrypted
    

89. Use Python for Automation ๐Ÿค–

  • Write Python scripts to automate tasks.

  • Command:

      #!/usr/bin/env python3
      print("Hello, World!")
    

90. Set Up NTP for Time Synchronization โฐ

  • Ensure accurate system time using NTP.

  • Commands:

      sudo apt install ntp
      sudo systemctl start ntp
    

91. Use Log Rotation ๐Ÿ”„

  • Manage log file sizes using logrotate.

  • Command:

      sudo vim /etc/logrotate.conf
    

92. Implement IDS/IPS Systems ๐Ÿ›ก๏ธ

  • Use tools like Snort for intrusion detection

and prevention.

  • Commands:

      sudo apt install snort
      sudo systemctl start snort
    

93. Use Cloud Services โ˜๏ธ

  • Integrate with cloud services like AWS, Azure, or GCP.

  • Command:

      aws configure
    

94. Set Up Web Application Firewalls ๐Ÿ”ฅ

  • Protect web applications using WAFs like ModSecurity.

  • Commands:

      sudo apt install libapache2-mod-security2
      sudo systemctl start apache2
    

95. Use Centralized Configuration Management โš™๏ธ

  • Manage configurations centrally using tools like Puppet or Chef.

  • Commands:

      sudo apt install puppet
      sudo systemctl start puppet
    

96. Implement SSL/TLS Encryption ๐Ÿ”

  • Secure communications using SSL/TLS.

  • Commands:

      sudo apt install openssl
      openssl req -new -x509 -days 365 -keyout /etc/ssl/private/server.key -out /etc/ssl/certs/server.crt
    

97. Use LXC for Lightweight Containers ๐Ÿฅก

  • Create and manage lightweight containers using LXC.

  • Commands:

      sudo apt install lxc
      sudo lxc-create -t download -n mycontainer
    

98. Implement Disaster Recovery Plans ๐Ÿ†˜

  • Prepare for disasters with comprehensive recovery plans.

  • Command:

      rsync -avh /data /backup
    

99. Regularly Review and Update Security Policies ๐Ÿ“‘

  • Keep security policies up to date and review them regularly.

  • Command:

      sudo vim /etc/security/policies.conf
    

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